Andrew McDonald has spent most of his career in the Civil Service, holding posts in what is now the Ministry of Justice, BIS and the Cabinet Office. In 2009 he was appointed to establish IPSA (the Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority), serving as its first CEO until his retirement on health grounds in 2014. His policy expertise is primarily in constitutional and information policy: he ran the constitutional reform programme from 2003 to 2005 and was senior advisor to the Hayden Phillips review of party political funding, 2006-07. He has written on public policy and modern British history. His current research interests include national identity and the history of MPs' expenses. In 2014 he became chair of Scope, the disability charity, and he lectures and writes on disability and ill health. He was initially trained as an historian and he began his career at the National Archives. He has held fellowships at Nuffield College, Oxford, at the University of California at Berkeley and at the Australian National University.