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Government finances

Government departments have budgets that range from less than £1bn to nearly £200bn. We explain the different aspects of government spending and revenue and what happens when permanent secretaries object to how ministers want to spend money.  

Here you can explore our topical explainers, updated to reflect new government data releases, read the Whitehall Monitor annual report chapter and read the latest expert comment from the Whitehall Monitor team.   

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Annual report

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